Introduction: Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without trachea-esophageal fistula is a common neonatal emergency which may be associated with major life incompatible cardiac abnormalities1. Survival of such neonate depends on stabilization and proper resuscitation followed by postoperative care.
Case Report: We came across a 4 days old male baby, with diagnosis of EA and distal TEF, posted for right thoracotomy with primary repair under GA. On preoperative evaluation baby had respiratory distress, frothing from mouth & was hemodynamically unstable on dopamine with oxygen saturation (Spo2) of 85% on room air. Intraoperatively surgery was uneventful but baby not able to maintain Spo2 even after ligation of fistula. At time of reversal of neuromuscular blockade, he had active movements, was maintaining SpO2 of 88% with 100% O2 & on dopamine. After extubation he maintained SpO2 of 85% on nasal prongs when shifted to PACU. But after 3 hours of surgery, his Spo2 started falling & developed persistent cyanosis, so trachea was intubated with chest tube insertion on right side done suspecting pneumothorax or hemothorax or pleural effusion which were subsequently ruled out, emergency 2 D echocardiography showed large VSD, pulmonary atresia, PDA, single ventricle with Tetrology of Fallot. He was started on PGE1, Alprostadil & dobutamine because of worsening hemodynamic instability shifted to NICU but was not able to maintain Spo2>75% with mechanical ventilation. His general physical condition deteriorated over next 2 days and died due to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.
Discussion and Conclusion: EA- TEF is a major congenital anomaly and when it is associated with life incompatible anomalies like single ventricle along with PDA, VSD and Pulmonary atresia, it becomes a night mare and a real challenge to both pediatric surgeon and anaesthesiologis1,4. Success in survival of neonate with EA-TEF is attributed to improved neonatal care, anesthesia and better understanding of neonatal physiology.