Anshuman, Hema Singh and Shaibal Banerjee
Over the previous decade, the revelation of Graphene a two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure has assembled a great deal of consideration because of its special properties, including remarkable mechanical properties, electrical, warm conductivity and so on Despite having strange properties, its low dissolvability and helpless reactivity have restricted use and made a significant test should be tended to for future application. To beat these issues, a few methodologies are investigated everywhere. Our first methodology is to orchestrate graphene oxide (GO) by the compound treatment of graphite through oxidation and further shedding in water. In light of the writing overview we have conceived functionalizing Graphene oxide with azido ester. It is referred to that when explosophore gatherings, for example, nitro, azido, and triazole are consolidated into materials, it improves the lively properties. The Graphene oxide functionalized azido-ester will be ready from esterification of Graphene Oxide (GO) by azido based liquor. For assessment of integrated items, various strategies like XRD (X-beam diffractometer), FT-IR (Fourier exchange infrared spectroscopy), TGA (Thermo-gravimetric examination), XPS (X-beam photoelectron spectroscopy), basic investigation, NMR (Nuclear attractive reverberation), SEM (Scanning electron magnifying lens) and TEM (Transmission electron magnifying lens) are utilized. We will examine the impact of it on other accessible lively composite materials by assessing fiery and mechanical properties like calorific worth, consume rate, thickness and so on and imagined fundamental upgrade.
Conjugated polymer-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic effect involves the generation of a strongly bound electron-hole pair (exciton) in a p-type semiconductor under illumination and the subsequent charge collection at reverse electrodes. The charge collection therefore, requires exciton diffusion and dissociation for charge formation. This can only be achieved by creating a heterojunction interface with an electron donor (D) and an acceptor (A) having higher electron affinity (EA) but still lower ionization potential (IP) than that of the donor. In order to enhance the charge separation, Polythiophene based soluble conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT] and fullerene (C60) derivative [Phenyl-C61-Butyric-Acid-Methyl Ester (PCBM)] have been extensively studied as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A). The photovoltaic devices based on this material combination are widely recognised as a low cost, roll-to-roll production on light weight flexible substrates and environment-friendly alternative for inorganic Si based devices. Solution based processability and low fabrication temperature could diminish the power utilisation cost to a large extent, serving rapid expansion in photovoltaic technology implementation. Subsequently, photovoltaic devices can be produced on the large area using screen printing, doctor blading, inkjet printing or spray deposition on plastic substrates. With momentous advances and great optimisation, conjugated polymer based photovoltaic cells have reached power conversion efficiency 5–6%.