Zeitschrift für genetische Syndrome und Gentherapie

Zeitschrift für genetische Syndrome und Gentherapie
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ISSN: ISSN: 2157-7412


Elements Involved In Promoting Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders

Anshi Shukla, Akanksha Mishra, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Murli Manhoar, Chandrashekara Puthanapura Mahadevappa and Anil Mishra

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are food allergen-induced allergic gastrointestinal disorders, characterized by accumulation of highly induced eosinophils in different segments of gastrointestinal tract along with eosinophil microabssess and extracellular eosinophilic granules in the epithelial layer. EGID are both IgE- and cell-mediated group of diseases that include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EGID pathogenesis. It has been shown that IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-15, IL-18, eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3 play a critical role in EGID pathogenesis. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE, EGE and EC are repetitive endoscopic and histopathological evaluation of biopsies along with other clinical characteristics/ manifestations. Antigen elimination and corticosteroid therapies are the most effective therapies currently in practice for the treatment of EGID. The cytokines (anti IL-5 and Anti-IL-13) therapy trials were not very successful in case of EoE. Most recently, a clinical trial using anti-IL-13 reported only 60% reduced esophageal eosinophilia without achieving primary endpoint. This clinical finding is not surprising and is in accordance with our earlier report indicating that IL-13 is not critical in the initiation of EoE. Notably, EGID still has no reliable noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. Hence, there is a great necessity to identify novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EGID and provide an effective therapy. Now, the attention is required to target cell types like iNKT cells that produce eosinophil active cytokines and is found induced in the pathogenesis of both experimental and human EoE. iNKT cell neutralization is shown to protect allergen-induced EoE in experimental model. In this review, we have discussed the key elements that are critical in the disease initiation, progression, pathogenesis and important for future diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for EGID.