Zeitschrift für Depression und Angst

Zeitschrift für Depression und Angst
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ISSN: 2167-1044


Negative Affective Features in 516 Cases of First Psychotic Disorder Episodes: Relationship to Suicidal Risk

Paola Salvatore, Ross J. Baldessarini, Hari-Mandir K. Khalsa, Premananda Indic, Carlo Maggini and Mauricio Tohen

Objectives: Plausible candidates of psychopathological phenomena that may associate with or anticipate suicidal risk, include negative effects, including admixtures of dysphoria, depression and anxiety described mainly in nonpsychotic disorders. We ascertained the distribution of such affective features in various first-episode psychotic disorders and correlated these and other clinical and antecedent features with intake suicidal status.
Methods: We evaluated 516 adult subjects in first-lifetime episodes of various DSM-IV-TR psychotic disorders. Blinded, protocol-guided, assessments of clinical features ascertained in SCID  examinations, self- and family reports and clinical records supported analyses of associations of suicide attempts at first-psychotic episodes with antecedent and intake clinical characteristics, including negative affects and diagnoses, using standard bivariate and multivariate methods.
Results: Negative affective features in various combinations were prevalent (90%) and at >75% in both affective and nonaffective psychotic disorders; anxious depression was most common (22%). We identified antecedent and intake clinical factors preliminarily associated with suicide attempts. Factors remaining independently associated in multivariate logistic modelling (ranked by OR) were: (a) prior suicide attempt, (b) prior aggressive assault, (c) bipolarmixed state or psychotic major depression diagnosis, (d) prior dysphoria, (e) intake dysphoric-anxiousdepression, (f) prior impulsivity, (g) previous affective instability, (h) previous nonpsychotic depression, (i) previous decline in vital drive, and (j) prior sleep disturbances.
Conclusions: Various types and combinations of negative affective features (especially anxious depression with and without dysphoria) were prevalent across nonaffective as well as affective first psychotic episodes and strongly associated with suicide attempts. These findings extend previous observations in nonpsychotic disorders.